K.N. Panikkar was Professor of Modern History at the Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He has written extensively on the cultural and intellectual history of colonial India. His publications include British Diplomacy in North India (1968), Against Lord and State: Religion and Peasant Uprisings in Malabar, 1836–1921 (1989), Culture and Consciousness in Modern India (1970), National and Left Movements in India (1980), and Communalism in India: History, Politics and Culture (1991). He has also compiled two source volumes: Peasant Protest and Revolts in Malabar (1990) and Towards Freedom, 1940: A Documentary History of the Freedom Struggle.